Dharma and Nyaya : Dharma and Justice

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As Manu says in Manusmriti

परित्यजेदर्थकामौ यौ स्यातां धर्मवर्जितौ। धर्मं चाप्यसुखोदर्कं लोकनिकृष्टमेव च।।
The desire, wealth and the heartfelt wish which is adverse to Dharma should be rejected, if it’s not enough reject that Dharma which is adverse and which will pull you in great difficulty or the Dharma which will be unfavorable of the whole society and its beings.

It’s very interesting to know that Manu himself guides on the principles given by him and guides thru his Smiriti (scripture) to reject the principles & values which are not in line with Dharma or even reject that Dharma which is not for benefits of larger meaning of society, structure or your own true purpose.

As per Mahabharata,

गुरोरप्यवलिप्तस्य कार्याकार्यमजानत: | उत्पथं प्रातिपन्नस्य न्याय्यं भवति शासनम् ||

One who is elderly and holds power or authority, if puffed up with pride, and is unable to discriminate between the proper (Dharma)  and improper (Adharma) thing to be done, has taken a wrong path, punishment to such a person is Justice.

An old story from Ramayana gets reminded whenever the topic of Dharma and Nyaya or Justice gets open. In this story a person who was rejected and treated like stray dog explains the way of justice to Shri Ramachandra.

This is a time when Shri Ram was ruling the mighty Kingdome of Ayodhya. He and his obedient brother Laxman followed a ritual before taking their dinner. Laxman would reach out to the door of palace and see if anyone is hungry and has not eaten that night, once he confirms that there is no one who is hungry at the door of palace, Shri Ram and Laxman would eat their supper.

One day Shri Ram requests Laxman to see at the door of the palace, if anyone is hungry. As per the rule Laxmana shouted at the door step “Is anyone hungry tonight?” He followed that there is a man who was treated by society like a stray dog is crying at the door step of palace.  Sri Ram and Laxmana called the man and asked for the reason of his pain and cry.

The man replied “I have been beaten by a Brahmin (knowledgeable clan of the society). Shri Ram ordered the Brahmin man to be present in the court room, and asked “is this man telling the truth? Have you have beaten him?”

Brahmin said “Yes I did. He was sleeping on the road with his dirty cloths, smelling like dog and he was blocking my way, hence I have beaten him with a rod. These dogs like people should be treated like this.”

Shri Ram understood that this was a crime done by Brahmin, he turned to the man who was beaten and asked him “What do you wish me to do with this Brahmin who has beaten you with a rod?

The man replied “Make him the head of department of ethics in the university”.

Ram smiled and asked the man “This Brahmin who has beaten you with rod and you wish him to the head of ethics at university? Once he becomes head of department he will have many students and followers, how will that be a justice for you?”

The man replied “I was also head of ethics department once upon a time, and I just preached and did not follow what should have been followed. The power, fame and wealth of that post made me go against the principles of that post and I made many mistakes, and by means of the law of karma now I am suffering like a stray dog. Let this Brahmine also be on that post and understand how unethical he is behaving and if he doesn’t behave as per the principles of the post he holds, he will also be like me one day- a stray dog”

Nature of the person and the requirement of job being done, many a times they are opposite to each other, in this tussle questioning and deciding what is right and what is wrong is the essence of dharma and the outcome or decision is Nyaya for self and others.

Let’s take example of one more story; this story is from Buddhist literature.

Once, Buddha and his disciples visited the Capitol City- Shravasti. Some of his disciples went out to collect alms in the city, while returning back, clouds gathered in the sky and it started raining. To take a shelter from the rain, these disciples went to a nearby place, which happened to be the court of judgment. And they saw that the judge is corrupt and he was accepting bribe from the people. And it was not only one of the judges following this corrupt path but most of them were following same path. They ignored the arguments of both the sides and the decisions were given in favor of people who were paying them bribe. All the disciples were upset to see this kind of scene.

When they returned to Buddha they narrated this incidence to Buddha and said “these judges were corrupt, they were Adharmi (not following dharma), till date we were thinking that the one who sits on the seat of judge provides justice, it is the path going against truthfulness, they are providing judgment which is against the Dharma, their behavior is against the Dharma”

Buddha explained them “Oh Bhiukkus (disciples), the judge who follows his own directionless path, doesn’t abide to the basic values of the post they are holding, not doing their duties as per the principles of the job they are doing are not following the path of Dharma”

He further explained “Judge who gets into the depth of the case. Weighs the right and wrong of the case and his judgmental options then further he decides the appropriate judgment is the one who follows Dharma”

He gave two gatha (principles) at that time

न तने होति धम्‍मट्ठो येनत्‍थं सहसा नये। यो च अत्‍थं अनत्‍थज्‍च उभो निच्‍छेय्य पंडितो ।।

असाहसेन धम्‍मेन समेन नयती परे। ध्‍म्‍मस्‍स गुत्‍तो मेधावी धम्‍मट्ठोति पवुच्‍चति ।।

One who takes a decision or provides judgment without thinking is not the person follows the path of Dharma

And the person who thinks, questions and ponders on what is right and wrong, what is just and unjust, follows the path of thinking, questioning, decides with the mind of equality and with the neutral mind  is the greatest,  knowledgeable and just person following the path of Dharma

During the period of vanavaas or exile the eldest among the Pandavas, Yudhisthir in search of shelter entered inside a Place of a Rishi (Monk). The place is called aashram, where the knowledge is imparted by Rishi (monk) to the disciples. Following is the conversation amoung Rishi and Yudhisthir.

Rishi asked “Who are you?”

Yudhisthir replied “As of now a person from forest, a sufferer of Adharma and injustice. We are in search of Dharma and justice (Nyaya)”

Rishi replied “Are you in search of Dharma or Nyaya?”

Yudhisthir said “Is there any difference between them? I believe they are same or inseparable”

Rishi smiled and said “Yes indeed they are inseparable, however I can teach you Dharma and I can’t grant you justice. A university or knowledge centre can teach you what is Dharma as well as you can read and learn Nyaya, but the justice has to be done by self or by authority.  Nyaya is attached to punishment or reward. For Nyaya you have to have tussle with your thoughts.  And for Nyaya you have to defeat your enemy, however for Dharma you have to defeat your on deflecting thoughts. Justice can be asked while Dharma has to be practiced. Nyaya has authority however Dharma has responsibility. Dharma comes from knowledge and Nyaya comes from principles, belief system. One can grant justice but one cant grant the Dharma it has to be followed”

Yudhistir replied “Indeed Nyaya and Dharma are partners but they have separate existence”.

As one of the Subhashita says,

शस्यानि स्वयमत्ति चेद्वसुमती माता सुतं हन्ति चेत्, वेलाम्बुनिधि र्विलङ्घयति चेत् भूमिं दहेत् पावकः । आकाशं जनमस्तके पतति चेदन्नं विषं चेद्भवेत्, अन्यायं कुरुते यदि क्षितिपतिः कस्तं निरोद्धुं क्षमः ॥

If the earth who produces grain eats all of it, mother who is the reason of giving birth kills an innocent child, sea crosses the limits, and if fire burns the earth, if sky falls, food becomes poison and the person who is suppose to follow duty goes against it, who is powerful to stop them?

And the key for following dharma is justice.

As we have seen that 10 characteristics of Dharma, which are also the basis of Justice or Nyaya

धृतिः क्षमा शमोऽस्तेयं शौचमिन्द्रियनिग्रहः।  धीर्विद्या सत्यमक्रोधो दशकं धर्मलक्षणम् ॥

धृतिः Dhruti- Determination, क्षमा Kshama- Forgiveness, शमः Shama- Control of mind, अस्तेयं Asteyam- Non- Stealing, शौचं Shaucham- Purity of Physical Body, Mind and Soul, इन्द्रियनिग्रहः Indriya Nigraha- Usage of senses , धीः Dhi- The ability to question , विद्या Vidhya – Knowledge , सत्यं Satyam- Truthfulness , अक्रोधः Akrodha- Anger less

Base of both Dharma and Nyaya is questioning and then reaching to the truthful action.

One of the important aspect of Nyaya and Dharma is Mercy or Compassion, following is a scripture guides us what can be the base of Dharma.

त्यजेत् धर्मं दयाहीनं विद्याहीनं गुरुं त्यजेत् । त्यजेत् क्रोधमुखीं भार्यां निःस्नेहान् बान्धवांस्त्यजेत् ॥

One should reject Dharma which is intolerant and dis-compassionate or merciless. Reject the teacher who is without knowledge; Give away angry spouse and leave the friendship or relationship where there is no warmth.

I will continue this blog series on Dharma with more stories and more compilation from ancient scriptures. Keep reading and keep sending your suggestions.

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Dharma – Why do we need it?

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In one of the ancient Sanskrit quote the importance of Dharma is given precisely.

आहारनिद्राभयमैथुनं च सामान्यमेतत् पशुभिर्नराणाम्।  धर्मो हि तेषां अधिकोविशेषो धर्मेण हीनाः पशुभिः समानाः ||

Hunger, sleep, fear and sexual desires are the basic needs of human and animal. However “Dharma” is the only gift given to human which differentiates themselves from animals. One who behaves or do not practice “Dhrama” in their life is equal to animal.

So if I take religion as Dharma then, am I a human? That’s the question which will differentiate the literal meaning of Dharma and the repeatable and ritualistic practices called religion.

I have seen many people coming to me and explaining about their religious practices. A post mid aged person explained me his daily routine about his multiple worships in a day, attending religious functions on festivals, also his weekly visits to the religious places, but during the talk his focus was more about explaining me his obedience to the religious duties and still the sufferings he faces in life. Outcome of this interaction was more like “I follow all rituals; still why am I suffering?”

As it is said in

दीर्घा वै जाग्रतो रात्रि: दीर्घं श्रान्तस्य योजनम् । दीर्घो बालानां संसार: सद्धर्मम् अविजानताम् ॥

Night feels longing to the one who is awake for whole night or suffering from insomnia. Even a little distance appears to be stretched to the one who is already tired of walking. Life sounds long to the people who do not know true Dharma.

The question remains if religion is not true Dharma, then what is Dharma? Before answering this question, I feel we need to understand the importance of Dharma. When we are talking about Dharma, we are surely not using the so called literal translation of it “Religion”.

During ancient time, there was a rich man. He was rich with few assets and a stock of animals. Among them he owned horses of premier clan. He was blessed with a son, and a very faithful servant. He was rich as well as generous; he used to do charity thru a village temple. Because of his humble, charitable, simple and approachable nature he was not just liked by people of that village but also by neighboring places, cities and villages. One day he died and before his death he wished to distribute his wealth among his son, servant and the village. Amoung many wishes of the wealth distribution, he had a wish of distributing his 19 premier clan horses. He wished his half of the horses should go to his only son; one fourth to the village temple and one fifth to the faithful servant.

The village elders, experts, lawyer came together for such distribution of wealth, but they could not stop scratching their heads as the biggest question was, how can they give half of the 19 horses to the son? You cannot cut a horse and distribute. It was a big puzzle for everyone. More than a fortnight they could not decide upon the solution.  Owing to such a dilemma a Dharmacharya (one who follows the path of Dharma/ righteous duties and provide judgment) from the capitol city was called upon, who was a very good friend of departed rich fellow.

The wise man arrived riding on his horse. The village experts told him about the rich man’s last will and testament which stated that half of the (19) horses must be given to his only son; one fourth must go to the temple and one fifth to the faithful servant.

The wise man laughed and said he will immediately resolve the issue and distribute the horses as per rich man’s will.

He placed all 19 horses in a row standing next to one another. Then he added his own horse as the 20th horse. Now he went about giving half of the 20 horses – that is ten horses to the son. One fourth of 20- that is 5 horses were given to the temple committee. One fifth of twenty- that is 4 horses were given to the faithful servant. Ten plus five plus four made 19 horses. The remaining 20th horse was his own which he promptly mounted, spoke a few inspiring words, and rode back home.

Surprised and amazed villagers admired his knowledge and the way he handled the issue which was like a mountainous problem for the experts, lawyers and elders of the village. While parting from the village Dharmacharya laughed once again and called all the experts and elders of the village. He said a few words and left from the village.

His words were inscribed in the mind of every villager and still today this story is part of various ancient Indian scriptures and tales.

He said “In our daily lives, in our daily affairs, simply add “Dharma” and then go about facing the day’s happenings. Ever come across problems in life that are seemingly insolvable? Add the Dharma principle in our daily lives and the problems will become lighter and eventually will disappear. In the manner of the ice which, with the addition of the water will turn into water and that will eventually evaporate as steam and disappear. And how do we add Dharma in our daily lives? Through pure thoughts, learning from each experience, adding devotion with sincerity of purpose and dedication, that only total faith can bring about.”

He further explained “Dharma is like the 20th Horse; after addition of this horse to the problem, the problem got resolved and even after the problem is resolved Dharma remained intact and pure. This purposeful addition of Dharma in our daily life will bring us and guide us for looking at the problem to solve it. One’s mind is pure and intentions are clear and the heart is full of simplicity and holiness, such a person is accessible to Dharma instantly and he becomes an instrument in the service of Dharma.”

Most of us know this, however the question in mind remains like Duryodhana- Prince of Kaurava had in mind.

जानामि धर्मं न च मे प्रावॄत्ति: । जानाम्यधर्मं न च मे निवॄत्ति: ॥

Duryodhana says “It’s not like, I cannot discriminate between Dharma and Adharma, Even though I have knowledge of Dharma, I am not able to put it into practice and it could not be my nature, and I could not leave the path of Adharma (opposite of Dharma).”

Be part of this journey of Dharma and let all our nature be full of Dharma. Let’s understand a basic principle

जलबिन्दुनिपातेन क्रमश: पूर्यते घट: स हेतु: सर्वविद्यानां धर्मस्य च धनस्य च

Drop by drop a vessel gets filled by water, likewise knowledge, dharma and money gets collected. Meaning no matter how small that knowledge, amount and act (filled with Dharma) may be, do not neglect it.

I will continue this blog series on Dharma with more stories and more compilation from ancient scriptures. Keep reading and keep sending your suggestions.

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Dharma- Introduction

Balance

As civilization progresses, the concept of belief and faith should be more refined and acceptable, however in current situation we see that this is becoming worse and intolerant. Everyone thinks that their view, opinion and understanding are the most appropriate and eternal. In the pursuit of objective of human life, people have taken their own path and progressed upon. There would be difference of opinion, conflict or agreement and consensus. During the freedom fight of India there were two friends, one among them was Lokmanya Tilak and the other one is great socialist Agarkar. They worked together and built many educational institutes in India. However they differed on one point and which became the point of separation of their path and ideology. According to Tilak it is Freedom 1st and then social uplifts and changes, and Agarkar said no matter you get freedom, what is the use of it, until there is no social maturity? I still feel in today’s condition Agarkar was somehow right to think so far.

Indian philosophical base is strong, eternal and timeless. It was applicable in ancient time as well as it is applicable in modern days, however we have conveniently forgotten it and conveniently accepted few things which were superficially taken by society. Today “Dharma” is translated as religion, and we have degraded the term “Dharma” itself. We classify ourselves as Christian, Islamic, Buddhist or Hindus. And we call that sect as religion, and it also got translated literally by Indians, and we call Hinduism, Jainism or Buddhism as religion.

I shall try to narrate and express many stories folding and unfolding from the ancient scriptures and from Indian mythology. The unfolding of Indian philosophy primarily be taken as Vedic – coming from period of Veda, Pauranik- Coming from Puranas and mythological stories, period when Buddhism and Jainism was overpowering the basic belief of Veda and Purana, medieval period- period when Islam came to India and then the modern time.  I will try to unfold the concept of Dharma in this series of blogs.

Manu an ancient philosopher during vedic period is known for many reasons. However his writings and expressions are of careful study. In one of his quote he mentions धर्म एव हतो हन्ति धर्मो रक्षति रक्षित:’- (Dharma Eva Hato Hanti Dharmo Rakshti Rakshita) what is Dharma? One who protects Dharma, the Dharma will be protector of him. Manu further explains Dharma. He gives 10 characteristics of an act which can be called as Dharma. Any action which is following the path of these 10 characteristics can be considered as Dharma.

धृतिः क्षमा शमोऽस्तेयं शौचमिन्द्रियनिग्रहः।  धीर्विद्या सत्यमक्रोधो दशकं धर्मलक्षणम् ॥

  1. धृतिः Dhruti- Determination
  2. क्षमा Kshama- Forgiveness
  3. शमः Shama- Control of mind
  4. अस्तेयं Asteyam- Non- Stealing
  5. शौचं Shaucham- Purity of Physical Body, Mind and Soul
  6. इन्द्रियनिग्रहः Indriya Nigraha- Usage of senses
  7. धीः Dhi- The ability to question
  8. विद्या Vidhya – Knowledge
  9. सत्यं Satyam- Truthfulness
  10. अक्रोधः Akrodha- Anger less

It might look a complex structure of Dharma, however I shall try to simplify for all of us. In one of the quote of Bhuddha, he proclaims

Do not believe in anything simply because you have heard it. Do not believe in anything simply because it is spoken and rumored by many. Do not believe in anything simply because it is found written in your scriptures. Do not believe in anything merely on the authority of your teachers and elders. Do not believe in traditions because they have been handed down for many generations. But after observation and analysis, when you find that anything agrees with reason and is conducive to the good and benefit of one and all, then accept it and live up to it

(एथ तुम्हे, कालामा, मा अनुस्सवेन, मा परम्पराय, मा इतिकिराय, मा पिटक सम्पदानेन, मा तक्कहेतु, मा नयहेतु, मा आकार परिवितक्केन , मा दिट्ठिनिज्झानक्खन्तिया, मा भब्बरूपताय, मा समणो नो गरूति। यदा तुम्हे, कालामा, अत्तनाव जानेय्याथ – इमे धम्मा अकुसला, इमे धम्मा सावज्जा, इमे धम्मा विञ्ञुगरहिता, इमे धम्मा समत्ता समादिन्ना अहिताय दुक्खाय संवत्तन्ती ति, अथ तुम्हे, कालामा, पजहेय्याथ। )

This quote of Buddha and the characteristics given by Manu for recognizing the act as per Dharma goes hand in hand. Dhi- धीः Questioning is one of the fundamental characteristics of Dharma.

The wonder of this word धीः- Dhi is so much that it reflects and unfolds many aspects of questioning itself. धी: – Dhi talks about aspects of questioning, thought, reflection, intention and opinion. Dhi can thus be seen reflected into various levels

Transformation of Dhi can be seen from Thought to opinion as

Thoughtà Questioningà Reflection à Understanding à Disposition or Intention à Opinion

As mentioned by both the philosophers Viz Manu and Buddha, the base is questioning and then finding your path.  And may be thus, the Intelligence is बुद्धि – Buddhi where “Bud” means to perceive. One who perceives the “Dhi”.  The act of perceiving his or her own thought, questions it, reflects upon the answers and post understanding intends to make appropriate opinion is Buddhi or Intelligence.

In a story of Shanti – Parva of Mahabharata; wife of Naga counsels him on what is Dharma. Serving and obeying Guru is dharma of student, Bearing knowledge and exploration is dharma of a Brahmine(one who is in search of knowledge), following instructions of manager (swami) is dharma of employee, protecting and nurturing people of nation is the dharma of nation’s leader or king, protecting all living beings is dharma of soldier, trading without cheating and respecting customer is dharma of trader, serving the nation/ world is dharma of all human being.

She further explains, a common homely man should protect the environment that’s his/ her dharma, following the controlled behavior is dharma of human limbs/ organs.

Questioning who am I? Why am I here? Whom do I belong to? And discovering the mind is dharma of a sanyasi (monk).  Protecting and listening to spouse is dharma of partners.

This series of blog on “Dharma” will unfold many stories and examinations by various scholars.

Dharma is prominent path according to Indian philosophy. Among the 4 purushartha – Object of human pursuit viz Dharma, Artha, Kama and Moksha, Dharma is the base and path for rest of the purusharthas.

Ishopnishada says,

हिरण्मयेन पात्रेण सत्यस्यापिहितं मुखम् । तत्त्वं पूषन्नपावृणु सत्यधर्माय दृष्टये – The face of truth is covered with a golden disc, unveil it, so that I who love the truth may see it

Let this series of blog be that truth which will unveil the cover over the face of truth- Dharma.

Compiled by

Sandeep Sadanand Chaugule

Abhishek Koli (Pali and Buddhism scholar)

 

Image courtesy: http://ibmsystemsmag.com/aix/administrator/performance/The-Business-Balancing-Act/

Rebellious Rukmini

Rukmini holds a special place in Shri Krishna’s life. I have been reading and understanding why would Krishna get married to Rukmini and why Rukmini went against the will and wish of her father and brother?

Before understanding the real story of Rukmini’s abduction and then subsequently becoming queen of Dwaraka we need to understand a little bit of geography and political powers at the time of Mahabharata.

Aaryavart/ Bharat at the time of Mahabharata

Aaryavart/ Bharat at the time of Mahabharata

 

Vidarbha was one of the ancient and powerful Kingdoms during Mahabharata. The ruler of this place was Bhishmak. Bhishmak had 5 sons and 1 daughter. Eldest amoung them was Rukmi and the name of princess was Rukmini.

Shri Krishna after killing Kansa established himself as King at Mathura; however Mathura was tortured and attacked by Jarasandha 17 times, in turn he was defeated by the army of Krishna all the times.

Magadh was the kingdom of Jarasandha. And he had got his 2 daughters married to Kansa, whom Shri Krishna had killed. As revenge to his killing Jarasandh along with his allies of Hastinapur, Anga, Chedi, Pundru and others kept attacking Mathura many a times. Mathura was a huge trade centre during the time of Mahabharata. Mathura was circled with various enemies of Shri Krishna and hence he had to keep his soldiers in a circular strategy, which was called as Sudarshan Chakra Sainya (Literally meaning the circled army).

Frequent attacks by Jarasandha and his allies made Shri Krishna to think of shifting its capital to elsewhere.

Shri Krishna chose a place near sea as an important and strategic place for his trade centered people of Mathura. Soon Dwaraka became a very important trade centre in India/ Bharat.

Except few friends from top Himalayas (Jambuvant) and Dwaraka Shri Krishna had a very less support. Major support got established when he helped Pandavas (Sons of Kunti- paternal aunt of Shri Krishna) to establish mighty Indraprastha later.

Rukmi was a very powerful prince. He was blessed by the mighty Parsurama, and disciple of Sage Durvasa. Rukmi went ahead and became friend of Chedi King Shishupal. Shishupal though a relative of Krishna but a fanatic enemy of him. Later Chedi king got adopted as son by the King of Magadha- Dwanda (Jarasandha’s Linage).

Though Bhismak, Rukmi’s father wanted Raukmini to select her own choice for marriage and in turn Rukmini wanted to marry Shri Krishna. With power and influence of Rukmi, the Swayamwar (Selection of Husband) was cancelled. Rukmi wanted her to get married to Chedi King Shishupal, a strong enemy of Shri Krishna. The Strategy of Jarasandh, Shishupal and Rukmi was to encircle the new kingdom of Shri Krihna- Dwaraka and catch the trade advantages of both Mathura and Dwaraka.

Rukmini, was very determined, politically learned and she wanted a very good kingdom established across India/ Bharat and a very happy Vidarbha. This could only happen if Krishna defeats Jarasandh, Shishupal, Pundru King, Shontipura King, Sidhu King, Gandhar and Kekay King.

Politically learned Rukmini wanted Shri Krishna’s kingdom to be established and people see good days. She pleaded Rukmi about her unwillingness to marry Shishupal, strong head Rukmi denied her choice. He immediately sent the messenger to Shishupal and sent Rukmini’s marriage proposal to him.

Shishupal and Jarasndh were in Magadh during the proposal of marriage of Rukmini was received. Without any delay Shishupal and Jarasandh got ready and proceeded ahead to Vidarbha. The journey between these places was of 5 days.

Rukmini had only 5 days with her for asking Krishna’s help and defeating the mighty kings. She was determined of not getting married to Shishupal. Thru her political understanding she could see the future of India and Vidarbha under the control of these ill minded kings. She thought of sending the message and letter to Shri Kishna and to seek his help. Time was less and she had to manage her political moves within that trivial period.

That night she secretly went to her Guru Maharshi Shatanand, who was a very learned and knowledgeable teacher. Under his tutelage Rukmini had learnt Archery, Politics and allied sciences. When he saw princess with determined eyes and strong will, he was surprised. He asked about her arrival at odd time to meet him. Also asked if there is any dilemma in her mind, and he could be of any help to resolve it.

With folded hands she said “No Gurudeo, I don’t have any dilemma in my mind, I am determined. I know my path and goodwill of Vidharbha”

Guruji asked “Your way is clear, you are determined and you have strong will, then what help do you want from Guru?”

Rukmini said” I want my rights Guruji”

“What kind of rights” Guru asked

“Right of practicing my duties. You have been teaching me about the rights and duties” Rukmini said “As you are my Guru I want you to perform your duties and provide me the pleasure of getting my rights fulfilled by my Guru, I am asking my right. My duties are not getting fulfilled and are endangered”

Guru Said “Let me know what do you wish me to do, however the duties are to be fulfilled by individual, I can help you by my words, and in case needed I will hold a weapon also”

Rukmini said “Is selecting husband a right of a women?” “Yes indeed” Guru replied.

Rukmini further said” My brother is getting me married to Shishupal, I have chosen my better half in form of Shri Krishna, no one is helping me. Neither my father nor my brothers. I have come to the most knowledgeable person for help”

Guru assured “I will protect your Dharma and right duties. I will help you in any case”

Rukmini Said “Guruji, however Shri Krishna doesn’t even know that I have chosen him as my husband.”

Guruji replied “We need to inform Lord about your love. In case if Shri Krishna doesn’t accept your proposal then?”

Rukmini Says “I have let go everything to Shri Krishna, in case he is not finding my proposal valid, I will die, but I will ask him to protect my Vidarbha from the clutches of the ill minded kings”

Guru with his wet eyes said “I am speechless in front of your determination and political understanding. What do I need me to do?”

Rukmini Said “Guruji, I want you to convey my message to Shri Krishna thru this letter. I would have sent this letter with the hands of servant; however the determination of my will wouldn’t get exhibited if I do so. It would look desperation of a lustful female. You carrying this letter would give him indication of me being honest and determined. I am honest to my teacher and I have been open about my thoughts to my Guru. You giving this message would be a symbol of determination and thoughtful steps I am taking for protecting rights of a female and in turn Vidarbh kingdom. I want this message to go from your hands since I want Shri Krishna to get convinced about my moves. In case, you will also guide Shri Krishna about the political situations of Vidharbha. In this letter I have mentioned that without even seeing you I have accepted you as my husband for the goodness of humanity and protection of rights, come and save me and my Vidarbh”

Guru Shatanand secretly took this message and handed over the letter to Shri Krishna at Dwaraka.

Krishna receiving Letter from Rukmini

After receiving the letter Krishna Said “Bhishmak, though a king of Vidarbha, holds army and weapons can always stop Rukmi for his actions, but he is a coward and can’t protect rights of Rukmini his own daughter, how will he protect the rights of his people and women of the kingdom, It is must that I need to proceed ahead and protect rights of people of Vidharbh and specifically Rukmini. Just compare the determination of Rukmini and cowrd-ness of King Bhishmak”

 

Shri Krishna bowed in front of Guru Shatanand and informed that he shall protect Rukmini and her rights. He also pondered on how he would be able to help Rukmini. Along with Guruji he made a plan. He would immediately go ahead towards Vidharbha along with his elder brother- Balaram and army towards Vidharbha. Guruji will make arrangements of bringing Rukmini to the temple of goddess Durga, which is situated at the outskirts of capital of Vidarbha- Kundinpur.

Krishna and Balaram and their army rushed towards the Kundinpur.

Back at Kundinpur Rukmini was strong and thinking about the future, her brother was rushing to make arrangements for the marriage of Rukmini and Shishupal.

As per plan Guru Shatanand got Rukmini at the temple of Durga before the proceedings of marriage begins. Balaram stopped the armies of Rukmi, Jarasandh and Chedi king Shishupal.

Shri Krishna went ahead and abducted Rukmini in his chariot from the temple of Durga. Balaram and Shri Krishna defeated the armies of Rukmi, Jarasandh and Shishupal.

rukmini Abduction

In modern days at every nook and corner we see absolute absence of determination of Rukmini and the understanding and protecting nature of Shri Krishna. Every news talks about female abuse, rape and willful ill handling of women. Absence of respect and protecting the women is seen everywhere in the world.

Let all of us get that determination of Rukmini and Respectful nature of Shri Krishna. Let all of should be dutiful and if needed be rebellious like Rukmini.

 

 

The Vedic / Indian Influence on Calendar : Iran to Cambodia

In my travel to various countries across globe… this habit of visiting many places and meet local people was actually boosted up in me by my lovely friend Harish Chauhan. He introduced me to the concept of surfing and staying with local nationals, which in turn makes you observe and see their life style closely.

In this exploration, I have collected some information, more by talking to the various nationalities and understanding their culture. I am compiling some of the information here on this blog.

At times my exploration landed in finding similarities between the Indian culture and their lifestyle, festivals etc.

I am exploring the similarities between the calendars we use for our festivals, time measurement and usage. I shall compare and contrast the time charts of Iran, Thailand, and Cambodia. The central theme is Indian Lunar and Solar calendars influencing these nation’s time measurement and calendars.

In India major two sets of calendars are utilized since many centuries’ viz. Solar (Saur) and Lunar (Chandra). Depending on the influencing and powerful king the calendar is named by them, as well which type to adopt was decided by the king. This is also seen in countries like Iran, Thailand and Cambodia. I will try not to be too technical in this information piece. I shall make it simpler which can be understood by common man.

Well what amazes me is the utilization of various calendars in India and then it is expanded not only in Southeast Asia but in Middle East (primarily Iran and Afghanistan) also. This influence is predominantly seen by Hindu time calculation style.

Let us see how Indian / Sanskrit names has influenced the Day names of Thai Calendar

Thais call their calendar as Suriyakhati, which has base from Sanskrit. Surya means sun. This means the Thai calendar is based on Solar (Saur in Hindu) type for day and month calculation. They also call the week as Sapdaha or Sapda meaning Seven Days which has Sanskrit origin as Saptaha. Thais call their day as Wan which has origin in Sanskrit word War. I was amazed to see such huge influence can be seen in Thailand. I have spent so much time talking to my Thai friend Chaichana in Bangkok about their time measurement system.

English name Planet Name Sanskrit Name of the Planet Sanskrit Name Thai Name Hindu Color for Planet Thai Dedicated Color
Sunday Sun Ravi or Aditya Aditya Wasare Bhanu Wasare Ravi Wasare Wan Athit Red Red
Monday Moon Chandra Som Wasare Chandra Wasare Wan Chan White or Yellow Yellow
Tuesday Mars Mangal or Angarak Mangal Wasare Angarak Diwase Bhaum Wasare Wan Angkhan Redish or Pink Pink
Wednesday Mercury Budha Budh Wasare Wan Phut Green Green
Thursday Jupiter Bruhaspati Guru Wasare Bruhaspati Wasare Wan Phruehatsabodi Orange or Deep Yellow Orange
Friday Venus Shukra Shukra Wasare Wan Suk Blue or Super White Blue
Saturday Saturn Shani Shani Wasare Wan Sao Blue or Purple Purple

Wasare is taken as War many a times. War is non-Sanskrit linguistic forms in Indic speech prior to approximately the 3d century a.d. called as Apabhansh (Please keep this word in mind we might use this word frequently). Ba of Sanskrit becomes Pa of Thai. Thais do not use hard word in their language hence we can see

Aditya become Athit. Chadra become Chan. Angarak becomes Angkhan. Budh is called as Phut. Bruhaspati becomes Phruehatsabodi. Shukra is called as Suk, and Shani become Sao. Many more Sanskrit words in day to day life of Thai people can also be observed. However the major influence I have seen in their day to day life is the calendar they use. Their day to day calendar is not Gregorian calendar and the months they use are also not January, February (Gregorian). The basis of the months can be seen the Sun Sign (Rashi in Sanskrit). The names utilized by them are Hindu names for various Sun Signs. They call their new year as Songkaran (Apabrahnsh of Sankrant), literally means transition of Sun. In India every moth Hindus celebrates Sankranti. The biggest amoung them are Makar Sankranti and Karka Sankranti. This is dedicated to the transition of Sun into Makara rashi: Capricorn and Karka Rashi: Cancer respectively. In this way every month has sankranti. Thai people celebrate their new year on Mesh Sankranti: Transition of Sun into Aries.

Thais use 2 suffixes after each month name viz. Ayon and Akhom. The origin of the Ayon is Ayan in Sanskrit means Beginning. Akhom comes from Sanskrit word Aagam meaning entry. This is particularly differentiate the 30 and 31 day solar months e.g Makarakhom Makar- Akhom meaning beginning of Makar period (Capricorn) or Kanyayon i.e Kanya- Ayon meaning entry into Kanya (Virgo) period.

Name of February is KumbhaPhan as we have already seen “Ba” of Sanskrit becomes “Pa” of thai hence we can say it is Kumbha-Bhan. The word Bhan comes from Bandh meaning tying or binding. The day added in February leap year is called as “Athikasuratin” again Sanskrit origin. This word is made out of 2 Sanskrit words Adhika (Addition) and Sura (Move). In India Malayalam calendar also uses same names of the month as Thai people.

English name of the Month Thai Name of the Months Malayali Name of the Month Sanskrit word Zodiac sign
January Makarakhom, Mokkarakhom Makaram Makar Capricorn
February Kumphaphan Kumbham Kumbha Aquarius
March Minakhom Minam Meen Pisces
April Mesayon Medam Mesha Aries
May Phruetsaphakhom Edavam (Idavam) Vrishabh Taurus
June Mithunayon Mithunam Mithun Gemini
July Karakadakhom Karkadakam Karka Cancer
August Singhakhom Chingam Simha Leo
September Kanyayon Kanni Kanya Virgo
October Tulakhom Tulam Tula Libra
November Phruetsachikayon Vrscikam Vrishchhika Scorpio
December Thanwakhom Dhanu Dhanu Sagittarius

 

Thai people celebrate their traditional new year by spilling water on each other, sometimes they use colored water to pour on each other. This is similar to the Holi festival of India. The Holi festival is celebrated on Full Moon day of Falgun month usually comes in March or April. This is also a period of Thai New Year. If you will observe the festivals of India Holi is predominantly played in North India. Hence we see the festival similarity and while tracing the parallels between the influences on Thai calendar, I feel it is more getting pushed from North India. However it is said that Cholas from Tamil Nadu have ruled Thailand and it also coincides with Tamil New year Puthandu also called as Chiittrai Vishu.

 

It becomes more interesting hereafter. Mesha Rashi Is the 1st zodiac sign. The sun moves into Chitra Nakshatra hence it is called as Chittarai Vishu. And the name of the 1st Month of lunisolar calendar month followed by Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Kashmir and Sindhis is “Chaitra” coming from the name Chitra Nakshatra.

Nakshatra is the term for lunar mansion in Hindu Astrology. A nakshatra is one of 27 sectors along the ecliptic. The opposite point for the nakshatra is the point on the ecliptic; it is the beginning of the zodiac sign. Spica is called Chitrā in Sanskrit. Which is also known as Meshadhi (From the opposite point is the zodiac sign Mesha – Aries begins), hence the name Chaitra is given to this 1st month of the calendar.

The name of Cambodian new year is Moha Songkaran taken from Sanskrit word Maha Sankranti (the important transition of sun). This again lies in April month. This is influenced in many south east countries.

Lunar Calendar Day International date Public holiday in Notes
Full moon of Pausa January Sri Lanka
Full moon of Magha February Cambodia, Laos, Sri Lanka, Thailand  
Full moon of Phalguna March Laos, Myanmar, Sri Lanka
Almost always in Chaitra, sometimes in Vaisakha April Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand Traditionally, the New Year’s Day is marked when the Sun enters Aries but the day is now fixed in most countries; Myanmar still follows the tradition
Full moon of Visakha May Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Sri Lanka Buddha Pournima
Full moon of Jyaistha June Sri Lanka
Full moon of Ashadha July Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Sri Lanka  
Full moon of Sravana August Sri Lanka
Full moon of Bhadrapada September Laos, Sri Lanka
Full moon of Asvina October Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Sri Lanka
Full moon of Karttika November Laos, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand
Full moon of Margasirsa December Sri Lanka

Well April (Date differs as per solar transition or new moon) is not just the New year for India, South East Asia but in Persia (Iran) and Afghanistan also.

In all below calendars March – April is the New Year period.

Month Indian Lunar Calendar Indian Solar Calendar Indian Solar Sign Name Thai Calendar Iranian Persian Afghan Pashto
Mar- Apr Chaitra Chaitra Mesh Mesayon Farvardin Wray (Means Lamb; That’s Mesh)
Apr- May Vaishakh Vaishakh Vrishabh Phruetsaphakhom Ordibehesht Ǧwayay (Means Bull; That’s Coming from Family of Gau – Cow)
May- Jun Jyaishtha Jyaishtha Mithun Mithunayon Khordad Ǧbargolay (Means Twin; Coming from word Yugula)
Jun- Jul Āshādha Āshādha Karka Karakadakhom Tir Čungāx̌ (Means Crab)
Jul- Aug Shrāvana Shrāvana Singham Singhakhom Mordad Zmaray (Representas Lion)
Aug- Sep Bhādrapada Bhādrapada Kanya Kanyayon Shahrivar Waǵay (Virgin)
Sep- Oct Āshwin Āshwin Tula Tulakhom Mehr Təla (Meaning weighing scale)
Oct- Nov Kārtika Kārtika Vrishchika Phruetsachikayon Aban Laṛam (Scorpio)
Nov- Dec Margasirsha Margasirsha Dhanu Thanwakhom Azar Līndəi (Sagittarius)
Dec- Jan Pausha Pausha Makar Makarakhom, Mokkarakhom Dey Marǧūmay (Capricorn)
Jan- Feb Māgha Māgha Kumbha Kumphaphan Bahman Salwāǧa (Aquarius)
Feb- Mar Phālguna Phālguna Meen Minakhom Esfand Kab (Pisces)

The new year in Persian is called as Nav-Rooz having roots in Sanskrit word Nav- Varsh literally meaning New Year.

Ashta Nayika- Yearning soul to seek beloved

Nayika depicted on the walls of Hampi

In Bharatiya Kala (Indian Arts) classification and segregation is one of the important aspect. Many scriptures and Sahitya (literature) provides us detailed classification of human behavior as well as the lifestyle. For such classification there is no discrimination as good or bad. According to Indian literature nothing is good or bad. It is the combinations of देश Desh (place), काल Kaal (time), पात्र Patra (person) makes us feel good or bad, acceptable or not acceptable.

There are many classifications we can use in our life for leading us to the best living. This series of blog is to collate and document these various classifications together and make my readers aware about various beautiful, meaningful and guidable aspects of Human life.

Muni Bharat has provided a lot of classifications which are taken from the day to day life and popularly utilized in performing arts in India and south East Asia. The prominent among them, is classification of Nayikas (heroines). The Nayikas are classified in 8 categories depending upon their relationship , feelings towards their beloved and their awastha (अवस्था)- state of mind; they are called as Ashta-Nayika (अष्ट- नायिका).

Vasaksajja Nayika (वासकसज्जा)

Vasaksajja Nayika is one who is in deep love with her beloved. She is waiting for her beloved or hero who is yet to return from his journey. The separation from him for longer time, however as soon as the news reaches her about his returning; Nayika decorates herself with best of her ornaments, colorful flowers and various colors on her body. She specially decorates her bed-chamber for her Lord.

Ashtanayika though talks about the state of mind of human however it is deeply influenced by spirituality. References of Nayika are used by many poets, philosopher and saints in their literature, such as Jayadeva, Suradasa, Meerbai, St. Dnyaneshwara etc.

Bharatmuni describes her as..

She is one who decorates her bed, for the best of the union with her lord. She decorates herself with jewels and ornaments having a wide smile on her face.

This Nayika is waiting for her beloved, during the waiting period she is not letting her time spent in agony or suffering rather she decorates herself with happiness. This emotion or Bhava is used by various poets and saints in their literature.

Moulana Rumi a Trukish and Farsi poet describes Vasaksajja’s mind as

Tonight is the night. It is the creation of that land of eternity. It is not an ordinary night; It is a mixing of those who seek unity. Tonight, the seeker and seeked will speak in one tongue. Tonight, the union chamber is looking particularly bright.

 

Virohitkanthitha Nayika (विरोहित कण्ठितः नायिका)

This Nayika is in deep distress and sorrow due to her separation from her beloved. Her beloved is engaged in various activities hence he has not come to meet her. Her beloved or lord is involved in finishing his duties and not able to take out time from his duties. Virohit Kanthitha literally means one who is spending time in separation; she is overwhelmed due to that separation.

She is usually depicted as one who is in deep pain and waiting for her beloved on her bed, or waiting and standing at the door step.

Many saints or philosophers have taken this distress and pain to portray their feelings of separation from their lord. In few compositions of Sri Purandar Dasa he says “My Lord is busy in solving problems and agony of other devotees, when is he going to come and see my pain and agony?”

Moulana Rumi writes

There is a void in your soul, ready to be filled. You feel it, don’t you? You feel the separation from the Beloved. Invite Him to fill you up, embrace the fire.

Swadhinbhartruka (स्वाधिन् भर्त्रुका नायिका)

Swadhin Bhartruka or Swadhin Patika is Nayika who is loved by her beloved and she tries controlling him. Her lord is subjected and enthralled by her goodness and character.

In many descriptions of Surdasa, Gopikas of Brij (Lovers of Sri Krishna residing in Brij) says, Radhika is one who controls their lord with her goodness and love.

For Radha sometimes Sri Krishna disguises as Radha and Radha as Krishna. In this condition there is no difference between the lord and devotee, Nayak or Nayika. Both are in control of each other.

Just like Surdasa’s word तुम भये राधा हम भये श्याम – in love you have changed to Radha and I have taken form of Shyam (Krishna)

or in Kabir’s word, लाली मेरे लाल की, जित देखू तित लाल | लाली देखन में गयी, में भी हो गयी लाल The redness (illumination)of my beloved is everywhere, When I went to see the redness I also became illuminated

When a devotee realizes God, he sees illumination of God all over the world. He also merges into God’s love in such a way that all the differences between him and God disappears. He sees only God and nothing else.

Or he also says

हेरत हेरत हे सखी, रहा कबीर हेराय | बूँद समानी समुंदर में, सो कत हेरी जाय ||

Searching over and over, O my friend! I lost myself in Him, As the drop mixes with the ocean, where can one search for it

Kalahantarita (कलहन्तरिता नायिका)

Kalah means fights or quarrels. Kalahantarita Nayika is one who fights with her beloved due to jealousy or adamant behavior. She is separated or quarreled and in sad state of mind. This Nayika feels sad due to separation from her beloved through quarrel. She is full of guilt and is deeply sorrowful as she laments her deeds and separation.

In many literature of Sri Purandaradasa, Tulasidasa, Surdadasa; devotee fights with the lord due to ignorant behavior of their lord. However after this fight with their beloved lord, they are pained and feel remorseful.

Amir Khusro in one of his couplet says

बये गए बालम, बये गए नदिया किनार, आपय पार उतर गए, हम तो रहे एही पार

He has crossed, the beloved has crossed, Has reached the other side, on his own. With me, left here alone.

Surdasa in one of his poem describes Gopika’s mind मै अपने जिया गर्व कियो

Alas!I did fill my heart with ego !After all, he is omnipresent and thus he recognized my false pride. Now, who shall I heed to for the re-union with my beloved? For, he has become hard-hearted on seeing my egoistic behavior. The Lord of Surdas is capable of enchanting many other women, there are so many like me who love him!

Khandita Nayika (खण्डिता नायिका)

Khandita Nayika is one whose beloved has not come to her and enjoys with another woman is known as a khandita. She is distressful and angry. This heroine feels offended as her beloved enjoys the company of another girl. She is angry at his faithlessness and is full of fear and distress.

He had promised her to be with her over that night, but turns up in the morning spending time with some other girl. Khandita literally means broken, this Nayika is offended, rebuked, and angry on her love.

Jayadeva in his ashtapadi depicts Khandita Nayika beautifully. Here Shri Krishna says मामियं चलित… Radha has seen me playing with other Gopikas, and left away in anger. As I was guilty, I was afraid of preventing her. Oh my god, she lost her respect for me. She is appearing very angry. I am thinking of her face only. I see excessive anger in her curvy eye brows. It is like black bees encircling beautiful red lotus. Oh beautiful Radha, I feel that you are annoyed with my rude behavior. Otherwise you would not have left me. I beg and bow to you.

Here the Lord is also affected with the broken heart of the devotee or Lover’s broken heart.

Amir Khusrau also shows emotions of Khandita Nayika in his Farasi Poetry

Tu shabana mi numaai be barkay boodi imshab, Ke hunooz chashm-e mastat asar-e khumar daarad.

You look sleepless, in whose embrace did you pass the night; your intoxicated eye has still the signs of tipsiness.

Vipralabdha (विप्रलब्धा नायिका)

Vipralabdha is a Nayika who even after sending messages, her beloved does not show up. She feels sad and humiliated.

After a long period of separation from her beloved she sends message to her beloved and asks him to meet her, however even after informing him her longing and distress he did not turn up. Vipralabdha is disappointed at her beloved for not showing up on time despite his knowledge about her distress in his absence. She has waited for long and is anxious, fearful and sad.

She is broken because of her beloved’s attitude of not keeping the word.

Jayadeva in his Ashtapadi describes Radha’s state of mind after learning that Shri Krisna has not kept his promise and he did not turn up to Brindavan.

या मिहे क मिह शरणं, सखी जन वचन वञ्चितं

Oh dear friend, Krishna has not come to, Brundavana at the promised time. What is the use of my beauty and youth? Who is there to protect me? I am deceived by others’ utterances.

Alas, if Krishna is not here, how can I endure the agony of separation? I am alone at this rendezvous. I feel that even death is better than bearing this separation helplessly.

Amir Khusrau Writes

Tonight there came news that you, oh beloved, would come – Be my head sacrificed to the road along which you will come riding! All the gazelles of the desert have put their heads on their hands in the hope that one day you will come to hunt them…. The attraction of love won’t leave you unmoved; should you not come to my funeral? You’ll definitely come to my grave. My soul has come on my lips (e.g. I am on the point of expiring): Come so that I may remain alive – After I am no longer – for what purpose will you come?

Proshitbhartruka (प्रोषित भर्त्रुका नायिका)

One whose beloved has left to another place for an important business is known as Proshita Bhartrika. She is depicted as a lady who has abandoned her ornaments and left her hair loose. This Nayika portrays immense grief, being neglectful of her appearance and deprived of energy. She is sleepless and constantly thinks of her beloved’s arrival.

As the Gopikas mourn with pain remembering Sri Krishna, Surdas ji describes,

अखियाँ हरी दर्शन को तरसे

These eyes are thirsty for the sight of Sri Hari! They desperately want to see those lotus eyes of his, and thus they remain sorrowful day and night. My heart remembers his delightful form adorned with musk on the forehead and pearls on his chest! He promised to return but has not shown up, his separation is becoming like death itself! Thus describes Soordas the status of the gopis who have been deprived of the sight of the Lord.

Amir Khusrau describes Proshitbhatruka s

सेज वो सुनी देख के रोऊ मैं दिन रैन, पिया पिया मैं करत हूँ, पल भर सुख न चैन

Day and night, I see an empty bed, and cry calling for my beloved, I remain restless forever.

Abhisarika (अभिसारिका नायिका)

Abhisarika is overwhelmed with love, she who leaves behind her family and shame to go and meet her beloved.

Abhisarika is a heroine, who sets aside her modesty and moves out of her home to secretly meet her lover. She is depicted at the door of her people and on her way to the tryst, defying all kinds of difficulties like the storm, snakes and dangers of the forest

There are three types of Abhisarika

Tamobhisarika (तमोभिसरिका) one who has left her house on the dark night wearing black robe to meet her beloved in dark forest.

Jotsnabhisarika(ज्योत्स्नभिसरिका) One who leaves her home on full moon nigh wearing white cloths to meet her beloved secretly

Divabhisarika (दिवाभिसरिका) Wears usual robe and secretly meets her beloved during day time.

 

Maulana Rumi’s couplet says

All day I think about it, and then at night I say it. Where did I come from, and what am I supposed to be doing? I have no idea. My soul is from elsewhere, I’m sure of that, and I intend to end up there.

 

Surdasji describes

चली बन बेनु सुनत जब ढहाई, मात पिता बांधव अति त्रस्त जाती कहा अकुलाई?

When she heard the sound of the flute, she rushed towards the forest. The family members showed anger and asked, where do you hurry to? She did heed to any of their words and got out of the household, breaking all other associations. It appeared as if the unstoppable rains of the rainy season are moving forth. She gave up all other relations and ran towards the Lord, like bee flies with all love towards the fully blossomed lotus. After all, she has completely surrendered herself to the Lord of Surdas!

Meera bai says

अब तो मेरा राम नाम दूसरा न कोई॥ माता छोडी पिता छोडे छोडे सगा भाई।

Now only Lord Ram is my savior and no one else, I left my mother, father and brother to seek my Lord.

Ancient Indian literature has deep connection to spirituality. Though the Ashtanayika talks about feelings of man – women relationship and emotions resulting the longing from beloved, It has deeper connection of Aatma (Soul) to Paramaatma (Ultimate or supreme Soul). Some say its relationship and longing of devotee to his/ her lord. Indian classical art forms are essentially spiritual in nature and thus provide a sacred platform for every individual. Just like, when it comes to Classical dance, the dancer is a devotee seeking the association of the supreme. Various aspects of the dance represent the yearning of the soul for the supreme soul.

In future blogs I shall describe and collate details of other classifications of Human mind and behavior based upon oriental (Indian) literature, Sahitya and Samhitas (Compilations).